27 days of insurrectionary Printer – by the hour, day by day



2 August

About 7:00 am
Insurrectionary forces gather around the PWPW. The insurgents are grouped along the: Konwiktorska, Zakroczymska, Wójtowska, Zakątna, Rybaki streets line.

11:00 am
Insurgents' attack on the PWPW building from three points: on the gate facing Zakroczymska Str., on the back at Wójtowska Str. (wall by Przyrynek Str.) and from the inside. Germans fire towards the attackers from the Fort Legionów direction, from the PWPW building and from the direction of the school named after Emilia Plater.
Action inside the PWPW starts with throwing grenades on the machine gun position by the main gate.

About 12:00 am
Crews of two German trucks which drove up to the vicinity of the Konwiktorska and Zakroczymska crossing rake Zakroczymska. The insurgents set fire to the trucks, fire at the Germans and throw grenades on them.
Attack by German infantry from the direction of Traugutta park. The infantry retreats under fire. The insurgents blow up a part of the PWPW wall facing the Zakątna Str., at Przyrynek, thus they can reach the Printer site quicker.

1:00 pm
Fighting in the Printer goes on. Another attack by the German infantry with armour-piercing guns from the direction of Fort Legionów. The insurgents repulse the attack with fire from the front blocks of the PWPW ("F", "D", "B").

2:00 pm
The Printer and the PWPW residential building by 35 Rybaki Str. Are completely captured by the insurgents. A first aid post is set up in block "F".

5:30 pm
The insurgents capture the building of the school named after Emilia Plater at 32 Rybaki Str. (corner of Zakątna).

3 August

7:00 am
The insurgents capture the bunker and the second building of the school named after Emilia Plater – the teachers' residential building. Commencement of barricade building at Zakroczymska.

11:00 am
The first German attempt at retrieval of the Printer, i.a. by strong fire from the armoured train, from anti-aircraft guns located by the Fort Legionów, from machine guns (from the direction of the Citadel) and the infantry. The insurgents repulse the attacks. As of that day the machine gun from block "W" rakes the approaches of the Citadel, railway freights, the bridge and a part of Wybrzeże Gdańskie.

1:00 pm
Heavy German fire from the anti-aircraft gun and infantry attack from the direction of Wybrzeże Gdańskie on insurrectionary positions in the buildings at 35 Rybaki and 32 Rybaki Str. (the school named after Emilia Plater).

4:00 pm
Fire on the buildings at 35 Rybaki and 32 Rybaki Str. by infantry, Panther tanks and the anti-aircraft gun from Wybrzeże Gdańskie.

4 August

Before noon
Fire and shooting down the crew of the anti-aircraft gun in Wybrzeże Gdańskie in the vicinity of the school at 32 Rybaki Str..

The insurgents build a barricade which shuts off access to Rybaki and Zakątna Streets. The beginning of ally airdrops in the area of the Old Town.

5 August

Around noon
German snipers successfully shoot from the Fort Legionów raking the yard where the insurgents walk from PWPW to the building at 35 Rybaki. Decision is made to open the underground passage between the PWPW and the building.

Around  10-11 pm
The crew sets a fire in the central yard to indicate the airdrop spot to the ally aircrafts. None of the containers reached the PWPW site.

6 August

Guns in trenches were observed on the Praga river bank opposite to the PWPW.

Before noon
Accurate shelling of the Zakroczymska barricade from the armoured train.

Access trench is dug from the school at 32 Rybaki to the building at the Zakątna and Wybrzeże Gdańskie crossing. Insurrectionary guards are posted in the building for the night to watch the PWPW approaches.

7 August

Before noon
First attempt by German infantry to break through Konwiktorska Str. Beginning of continuous, heavy shelling that will last for three days of PWPW and the building at 35 Rybaki 35 from the direction of the Citadel by guns and machine guns, the armoured train and guns located in Praga. Many fires burst out in buildings and wooden buildings along Zakątna, Przyrynek, Wójtowska and Rybaki streets.

Around noon
A big fire bursts out in the building at 30 Rybaki Str., caused by heavy shelling.

8 August

Before noon
Heavy shelling of the Rybaki Str. line and the PWPW building from Praga guns, guns and machine guns from the direction of the Citadel and from the armoured train.

Shelling of the Graphical Industry School by a tank from the direction of Traugutta park.

Before midnight
Heavy shelling of the building at 35 Rybaki Str. from Praga guns.

9 August

After midnight
An access trench is made to allow safer passage between the Emilia Plater school at 32 Rybaki and the building at 35 Rybaki Str..

Beginning of a day-long heavy artillery shelling of the PWPW and the residential building.

Before midnight
The insurgents fail to reach the German artillery post between Traugutta park and Fort Legionów. Lighted by flares and under machine gun fire they retreat.

10 August

Bombing the PWPW and the vicinity from the air, done by German dive bombers Junkers type JU 87 "Stuka".

Before noon
The PWPW is deprived of the machine gun and crew, withdrawn by the commanders for action elsewhere.

After twilight
PWPW shelling is supported by a German heavy armed river cutter "Pionier" the so-called "monitor".

11, 12 August

Heavy artillery fire on the school named after Emilia Plater.

13 August

6:00 am
German attack from the direction of Wybrzeże Gdańskie on the Rybaki Str. line (three tanks, tankette and infantry) after preparatory artiller shelling from the Praga guns and the cutter "Pionier". In view of the threat to the PWPW, the crew takes a new position at the street narrowing in the vicinity of building 27 and 26 Rybaki  (Nitkowski Manor). Tanks do not reach this position. Heafy fires is continuously focused on the school at 32 Rybaki.

Another attack by tanks on the Rybaki Str. line in the vicinity of Kościelna Str.

14 August

After midnight
The PWPW insurgents try to recover a hardly accessible airdrop container from Traugutta park.

Before noon
German infantry tries to break through from the direction of school at 32 Rybaki Str.

The night of the most intensive airdrop of supplies in the vicinity of PWPW. Containers fall on its approaches: Park Traugutta and near the Wybrzeże Gdańskie. Insurgents make forays to get them.

15 August

Weaker fire on PWPW and the surroundings. The Printer is under fire several times – mainly from salvo mortars (air mine throwers) – the so-called "szafas".

The insurgents' foray towards the Graphical Industry School. Noticed and under fire from Traugutta park, they retreat.

Before midnight
Heavy artillery and mine thrower fire on the PWPW and its surroundings.

16 August

The fire on the PWPW complex continues. Destroying shells reach the buildings by Zakroczymska and Rybaków, causing numerous fires.

4:00 pm
A short air raid and fire on the Zakroczymska barricade, followed by a fierce attack by two tanks and infantry on this barricade and the western part of the PWPW. After some time the tanks and infantry retreat under fire from the barricade, buildings by Zakroczymska 15 and 17, and from the PWPW building; they retreat under cover from a machine gun.

Before midnight
Night artillery fire on the Rybaki Str. (including 35 Rybaki). In the vicinity of the PWPW the insurgents find one more airdrop container (the last one retrieved in the Old Town).

17 August

Continuous bombing and shelling the whole PWPW site from mine throwers. Several fires in the school named after Emilia Plater by 32 Rybaki Str. and in the buildings along Rybaków and Zakątna. The insurgents try to extinguish the blaze.

2: 59 pm
Particularly heavy fire on the PWPW building from "szafas". The fire disrupts the burial of those killed on the barricade the previous day, arranged in the eastern yard..

Attack by German infantry and tankettes in further PWPW approaches, repulsed by the insurgents. Germans lose two tankettes.

Before midnight
Sappers repair the communication trench between the building at 35 Rybaki and the Emilia Plater school.

18 August

German approaches to the Konwiktorska street line are increasing frequent. They install machine guns in the Graphical Industry School.

All day
Round the clock air raids and bombing of the vicinity of the PWPW. A bomb destroys the building by 3 Zakątna (by the barricade).

19 August

Between about 1:00 and 3:00 am
Heavy shellfire on the Konwiktorska Str. line and the PWPW buildings, which cause the break out of fires. The first, strong continuous lighting the PWPW and its approaches with floodlights and flares.

Morning and on
The first day of the German "mass storm" on the Old Town – several thousand soldiers aided by mombing aircrafts, armoured train, self-propelled storm guns, "Goliaths" (self-propelled mines), mortars (the heaviest pone and heavy), 38 mm guns, mine and flame throwers.

Between 6:00 am and 7:00 pm
The shellfire on the Printer was enhanced with heavy bombing and mortar fire. New fires break out in the PWPW buildings, exhaused on a current basis by insurrectionary forces.

7:00 pm
Following many bombing and fire raids German efficiently set fire to the school named after Emilia Plater. Despite the attempts to extinguisj the fire, the floors of the second and third floor collapse. The insurgents leave the ruins of the school building, as further presence there became impossible.

20 August

The last day of defence of Muranów. Strengthened bombing of the PWPW, shellfire from guns, mine throwers and tanks standing alnong the right hand side of Konwiktorska Str. (mainly in the playing grounds of the KS "Polonia"). Numerous fires break out in the Printer – also on the Wójtowska Str. side.

The insurgents man the ruins of the Emilia Plater school at 32 Rybaki.

4:00 pm
A tank with a megaphone drives up to the ruins of the Emilia Plater school and broadcasts texts in several languages, encouraging the insurgents to cease resistance. Tanks suggesting surrender drove from time to time along the Wybrzeże Gdańskie line.

21 August

Heavy shelling on the PWPW buildings by artillery, salvo mortars and Junkers. Fires breaking out inside the PWPW building.

Tank covered infantry attack from Fort Legionów on the Zakroczymska barricade. Germans forces civilian population to run in front of the tank. The insurgents repulse the attack with grenades and igniting bottles. Bombing and demolition of the northern part of the building at 35 Rybaki. Heavy fire on the Rybaki barricade and the ruins of the Emilia Plater school from Praga guns and from tanks located on the Wybrzeże Gdańskie.

22 August

About 3:00 am
The insurgents try to work out a connection with Żoliborz. The rout of one of the platoons runs along Zakroczymska Str. to the Graphical Industry School, then via the Traugutta park towards the Gdański Railway Station. The insurgents are forced to retreat and return to their positions around 7:00 am.

5:00-7:00 am
Increasing shellfire on the PWPW and the ruins of the Emilia Plater school, which causes break out of fires and demolition of the surrounding buildings.

Before noon
As a result of the demolitions the role of barricades was diminished – German infantry undertakes the first attempt at breaking through the left hand side of Rybaki Str. and tearing up the new Town escarpment (from the Wybrzeże Gdańskie). The Germans are driven back.

Shellfire on the PWPW from howitzers, mortars, grenade throwers and bombing along with fire from on-board guns. The insurgents are incapable of exhausting the fires which break out in the PWPW.

23 August

Heavy artillery and grenade thrower fire.

10:00 am
Germans attack the front of the western part of the PWPW with the Zakroczymska barricade with the aid from armour-piercing guns. The enemy gets under fire from building "F".

2:00-3:00 pm
Enhanced shelling on the northern part of the Old Town from the armoured train, artillery and self-propelled storm guns, which changes into a drumfire around 3:00 pm.

3:00 pm
German infantry attack under tank cover on the Rybaki Str. line. Heavy attack on the ruins of the Emilia Plater school.

5:00 pm
The enemy concentrates their shelling (primarily from the armoured traing) Wróg koncentruje ogień (przede wszystkim z pociągu pancernego) on 35 Rybaki building and on the eastern part of the PWPW.

6:00 pm
Junkers raid on 35 Rybaki block. Bombs completely demolish its northern part. Immediately after the bombing the building and block "A" of the PWPW are under heavy fire from machine guns.. From the Wybrzeże Gdańskie – supported by armour-piercing gun, machine guns and grenade throwers – the enemy infantry (RONA company) take control of the ruins of the Emilia Plater school and the 35 Rybaki building.

After 7:00 pm
Consecutive attempts at retrieving the 35 Rybaki building. Through the night the insurgents attacked and retreated, partly recovering the building.

24 August

2:00 am
The insurgents recover a part of Rybaki Str. – including the ruins of the Emilia Plater school.

Before dawn
Germans retreat from the 35 Rybaki building, which is recaptured completely by the insurgents by dawn.

Air raids on the Printer, started early in the morning, repeated every dozen or so minutes. It is assisted by heavy shelling and fire from salvo mortars. Fires break out in buildings by Wójtowska Str. and in the PWPW building. A series of attacks by German infantry from the Wybrzeże Gdańskie – mainly on the ruins of the Emilia Plater school.

11:00 am
Following heavy air and artillery fire, the enemy attacks the western periphery of the PWPW driving tanks and bringing infantry from the Traugutta park right to the PWPW fence at the Sanguszki and Zakroczymska crossing (blocks "F" and "G"). Germans who already started to break through the iron fencing of PWPW were thrown back.

12:00 – 3:00 pm
Series of consecutive attacks on the 35 Rybaki building (Stukas raids, machine guns, artillery, grenade throwers, infantry). Germans take control of the ruins of the Emilia Plater school and set post at the outlet from Zakątna Str. They try to approach the damaged fence from the nearest, northern part of the building at 35 Rybaki. Miraculously the insurgents manage to repulse the enemy assault, though the enemy managed to break into the building several times.

4:00 pm
The intensive fire on the 35 Rybaki building is supported by an attack gun (self-propelled) which came from the bridge. Shellfire on the whole eastern part of the PWPW (blocks "A" and "B") from the armoured train and artillery.

6:00 pm
The enemy tries to circle the 35 Rybaki building from the south and capture the Zakątna barricade. Tank attacks and air raids.

8:00 pm
Germans break into the 35Rybaki building from the northern side (demolished).

Till midnight
Fights inside the 35 Rybaki building. At midnight the insurgents completely retrieve the building – mainly with the use of flame throwers.

25 August

Failed insurgent attempt at retrieval of the ruins of the Emilia Plater school. The PWPW under fire from storm guns (self-propelled) and air bombed.

8:00-10:00 am
German infantry attacks the 35 Rybaki building under cover from two tanks. The enemy breaks inside and is driven back.

Around noon
Attacks on the western side of the PWPW and along Konwiktorskiej Str.. Tank attacks on the Fiat plant. Three tanks attack Konwiktorska Str. towards the PWPW. The tanks got under fire and one was damaged. Bombs demolish the corner building at 17 Zakroczymska 17 and the building at 3 Zakątna.

About 1:00 pm
Heavy air bomb strikes at the point where block "C" contacts the main yard and it kills almost all the soldiers from the flame thrower platoon, who stayed in the basement at this location.

About 5:00 pm
The insurgents watch the maneuvers of several Panthers immediately by the Fort Legionów, correctly recognised as preparations for a general attack on the PWPW.

5:00-7:00 pm
After a daylong heavy shellfire and a number of air raid bombing, before twilight the enemy infantry undertook a massed attack on the building at 35 Rybaki. The attack was done with the use of gas grenades (chocking and tear gases). Yellow smoke makes dense clouds in the vicinity of the block. The insurgents finally retreat from the building under fire from the front of the back yard.

Till 8:00 pm
After mutual fire (insurgents fire from block "A" of the PWPW, Germans from the building at 35 Rybaki) the enemy starts a brisk attack on block "A" with the use of machine guns, armour-piercing guns and grenades. The assault is repulsed.

At tnight
The insurgents are unsuccessful in recovering the 35 Rybaki building. The attack from the PWPW, supported by flame throwers, breaks down under the German machine gun fire.

26 August

6:30 am
Heavy shellfire on the PWPW.

After about 7:00-8:00 am
Daylong bombing of the PWPW – nine raids by three Junkers. At 10:00 one of the bombs strikes the yard-side wall of block "F", breaking through to the basement and destroying the shelter for civilian population and the first-aid post, which is moved to block "L".

1:00 pm
The heavy shellfire and fire from machine guns on the front of the PWPW continues. Five heavy tanks and infantry approach from the Fort Traugutta. One of the tanks is shot down and set on fire by a shot from piat. The others heavily rake the insurrectionary positions.

1:30 pm
An explosive carrier of Borgward IV type places a 500-kg places an explosive charge immediately by the fencing, near block "W". The explosion tears down the fencing of the PWPW at a considerable length. Storm guns continue fire on the Konwiktorska Str. line, which is additionally attacked by German infantry.

Before 4:00 pm
Beginning of the mass assault on the PWPW. German infantry supported by continuous fire from tanks, machine guns and artillery enters the PWPW site through the gap in the fence and tears up the staircase of block "D" to the upper floors of the building. A German machine gun is placed on the ground floor of block "W", which successfully fires at the insurgents in block "F". The civilian population starts to leave the PWPW buildings.

Fights inside the PWPW complex. The insurgents leave block "A", attacked from the 35 Rybaki building. By the evening the enemy takes control of the upper floors of the front blocks, including the whole blocks "A", "B" and "F", and the front part of block "D" (whole height).

After twilight
Insurgents' attempt at retrieval of the PWPW buildings. Attack on block "F" – from the inside of the Printer and from Zakroczymska Str., from the western yard (from the gate by block "G") – supported by several platoons from the Old Town. By surprise the insurgents manage to capture the ground floor and the first floor of block "F". However, the higher floors remain in German hands. Heavy German attacks on the area of Konwiktorska and the Fiat plant. Fighting within the Printer go on until midnight.

27 August

About 7:00 am
Gunfire on Zakroczymska barrier from armour-piercing guns, machine guns, two Panthers and from the armoured train. The vicinity of the fighters limits the bombing to raids on insurrectionary positions in blocks along Wójtowska Str.). Artillery fire lasts till the evening.

Further fighting inside the building. Insurgents from blocks "N" and "O" rake the eastern yard and block "B", blocking the enemy's attack. Several successes and the general situation within the PWPW brought hope as to the possibility of complete recapture of the Printer.

Before noon
Several attacks by the enemy's infantry from the direction of the ruins of the Emilia Plater school on the insurrectionary positions between Zakątna and Samborska streets and on the Zakątna-Wójtowska line. Germans driven back by insurgents with a submachine gun.

Further fighting inside the building. Disadvantageous position of the insurgents, pushed off to lower floors. Top floors throughout the building are occupied by the enemy. Ceased air and artillery attack on PWPW.

28 August

4:30 am (dawn)
A fierce German attack on the Zakroczymska barrier, fire from the Citadel, from attacking guns, from the PWPW windows and from the infantry. The insurgents withdraw from the barricade under heavy fire.

6:00 am
Shelling from Wybrzeże Gdańskie and from the other bank of the Vistula, Zakątna, Wójtowska and Przyrynek streets. Numerous fires.

After 6:00 am
Beginning of the final German attack of the insurrectionary PWPW crew. Heavy fire from blocks "D" and "F" across the internal yards, followed by an attack in the corridors of the building from all directions.

7:00 am
Despite the determined resistance, in view of the prevailing forces of the enemy and the lack of munitions the insurgents lose all the remaining positions in each block. They start to gradually retreat under fire from the PWPW through Wójtowska Str.. Those retreating continue firing into the PWPW windows from the ruins of Wójtowska, to cover their colleagues retreat.

7:30 am
The last insurgents continue defence only in a part of the PWPW basement and continue retreat towards block "H" (located in parallel to Wójtowska Str.).

After 7:30 am
Germans capture the first aid post in the basement of block "L", where they use grenades to kill the heavily wounded, the nurse and the commandant of the first aid post.

8:00 am
Attack on the last defended patch of the PWPW – the hall at the lowest floor of block "H".

by 8:30 am
The last insurgents retreat from the PWPW under heavy fire.